Q.1) Who were the Truks?
A: The Turks were nomads who lived in certain areas of northern, eastern, western and central Asia since the 800 CE.
Q.2)Name the two notable Turkish rules who invaded India.
A: The Turkish rulers Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhamad Ghori of Ghor invaded the India.
Q.3) Why did these Turkish rulers invade India?
A: Mahmud of Ghazni only wanted to acquire wealth that was contained in the various North Indian temples. But Muhamad Ghori aimed at establishing direct rule over conquered territories in India.
Q.4) Which Turkish invader of India took on the title of Sultan? Name some important temple cities that were plundered by this ruler.
A: Mahmud of Ghazni took the title of Sultan. The important temple cities like Thaneswar, Mathura, Kannauj and Somnath were plundered by him.
Q.5) Which Turkish invader laid the foundation of Islamic rule in India?
A: Muhammad Ghori, also known as Muhammad of Ghor, laid the foundation of Islamic rule in India.
Q.6) Who defeated whom in the (i) first battle of Tarain and the (ii) second battle of Tarain?
A:Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain and Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain.
Q.7) Name the ruler who laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate in India.
A: Qutbuddin Aibak laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate in India.
Q.8) State one reason why the Turks were successful in their invasion of India.
A: There are various reasons for the success of the Turks. Their religious zeal was a primary reason. One of Other reasons were : Internal conflict : The regional kingdoms were busy in fighting with each other and could not put up a united front against foreign invasions.
Q.III.1) What was the basic difference in motive between Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Ghori for invading India?
A: Mahmud of Ghazni did not want to establish an empire in India but only wanted to acquire wealth that was contained in the various North Indian temples. Muhammad Ghori aimed at establishing direct rule over conquered territories in India.
Q.III.2) What strategy used by Mahmud of Ghazni in each of his expeitions to India ?
A: His campaigns were invariably launched in the hot summer months and on each occasion he would leave India before the onset of the monsoons. This was done so that his troops would not be trapped by the flooded rivers of the Punjab.
Q.III.2) Analyse the impact of repeated incursions by Muhmud of Ghazni.
A: The impact of these invasions was the breakdown of Indian resistance, paving the way for future Turkish conquests. It also exposed the inability of the Indian rulers to stand united against external threats.
Q.III.3) Explain the circumstances that laid to the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate.
A: After Mohammad Ghori’s death, his empire was divided among his slave generals among whom Qutbuddin Aibak seized the opportunity and laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate in India.
Q.III.4) Assess the causes of the success of the Turks in India.
A: The religious zeal was a primary reason for the success of the Turks. Other reasons are i. Internal conflict, ii. Lack of unified command in Rajput army, iii. Superiro military technology of the Turks.
Q.IV.1) Write short notes on main battles fought by Mahmud of Ghazni in India.
A: Mahmud of Ghazni made his first attack on Jaipal. Than jaipal’s son Anandpal alliance with the rulers of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kanauj, Delhi and Ajmer and fought with him. He attacked and plundered several other cities, such as Nagarkot, Kangra, Thaneswar, Mathura and Kanauj.
Q.IV.2) Mohammad Ghori and the Battles of Tarain.
A: Mohammad Ghori was defeated in 1191 CE in the First Battle of Tarain by Prithviraj Chauhan. The next time he returned with a mightier army that comprised Turkish and Afghani soldiers and fought again with Prithviraj Chauhan in Second Battle of Tarain and defeated Prithviraj.
Fill in the blanks
- During the eleventh and twelfth centuries CE, the Turkish rulers invaded the Indian subcontinent.
- Mahmud of Ghazni wanted to acquire wealth that was contained in the various North Indian Temples.
- Muhammad Ghori aimed at establishing direct rule overconquered territories in India.
- Alberuni and Firdausi, renowned Persian poets, were patronized by Mahmud of Ghazni.
- The Turks used horses as opposed to elephants used by Rajputs in warfare.
- Firdausi wrote the famous epic, Shah Namah in Persian.
- Alberuni wrote Kitab al Hind, a historical account, which gave a good account of the polity and society of India on the eve of Mahmud’s invasion.